The stained cells were observed using a fluorescence microscope (CKX53, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) for determining any nuclear structural changes and apoptotic bodies. However, both geraniol and citronellol were considered as less important or weak sensitizer in terms of frequency of sensitization [28,29] and both compounds accounted for very small percentage (1.55% and 1.10%) in the whole oil. No, Is the Subject Area "Benzoates" applicable to this article? A comprehensive review showed that the threshold for citral (a major component accounting for 69.37% in the present study) to induce dermal sensitization in human is 1.4 mg/cm2 , which guaranteed the safe usage of lemongrass oil (1 mL of 5% lemongrass oil contain about 35 μg citral) for this purpose. The data used to support the findings of this study are included within the article. The analysis was performed using the following temperature program: initial temperature at 60°C, held for 2 min; and increased at the rate of 5°C /min to 90°C, held for 2 min; and increased at the rate of 5°C /min to 130°C; then increased at the rate of 10°C /min to 150°C, held for 1 min; and increased at the rate of 10°C /min to 200°C, held for 2 min; finally increased at the rate of 10°C /min to 240°C. FACS analysis using Annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide staining was used to assess the effect of HLL on apoptosis in A549 cells. After 48 h, the cells were harvested and lysed with ice-cold lysis buffer containing 150 mM NaCl, 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), 1 mM EDTA, 1% NP-40, 5 mM sodium orthovanadate, and protease inhibitor cocktail (BD Biosciences, USA) to extract the total protein. Identification of compounds was based on a comparison of mass spectra of each peak with those of authentic samples in a mass spectrum library. After fixed gently in ice-cold 70% EtOH and incubated for 2 h at −4°C, cells were washed with ice-cold PBS twice. Roles Protein lysates were centrifuged at 22,000 ×g for 10 min at 4°C. However, none of these studies have tested the ovicidal activity of these oils. The result of antibacterial activity indicated that Cymbopogon citratus possessed a good and wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria; whereas The results showed that citral is the major component accounting for 61.20%–76.46% of the essential oils. All Sarcoptes eggs in negative control groups hatched. Lemongrass oil at all concentrations led to significant decrease in Sarcoptes egg hatching compared to the negative control (P<0.01). The EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are considered an emerging class of targeted therapeutic agents for the treatment of NSCLCs . bioactivity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) against five species of the genus Aspergillus (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus, A. niger and A. fumigatus) isolated from maize, which is the staple food for most African and Latin American … The inlet temperature was 240°C and the oven temperature program was as follows: 60°C to 220°C at 4°C/min and then at 20°C/min to 240°C with an interphase temperature of 280°C. Cymbopogon citratus, popularly known as lemongrass, is used for the treatment of gastric, nervous and hypertensive disorders, in addition to its use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The results indicated that lemongrass oil could be comparable if not better than tea tree oil when used as miticide. This study evaluated the gastroprotective and gastric healing effect of essential oil of C. citratus (EOCC), citral and geraniol at doses of 1-100 mg/kg (p.o) on acute ethanol-induced ulcer and chronic acetic acid-induced … The morphological changes of A549 cells treated with HLL were observed by microscopic study with fluorescent nuclear staining. The disease is frequently complicated by bacterial infections. Is the Subject Area "Essential oils" applicable to this article? The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Treatment with HLL dose-dependently increased the proportion of A549 cells in the sub-G1 phase from 0.96% to 1.27%, and 51.07% after treatment with 0, 1, and 10 μg/mL HLL, respectively (Figure 3). +44 1273 746505 EMAIL: email@example.com Web Site: www.nhrorganicoils.com Safety Data Sheet Organic Lemongrass Essential Oil (Cymbopogon citratus… Project administration, The essential oil from C. citratus is known as lemongrass oil, with citral as the major component . Funding: This work has been founded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31902293) and the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (2018JJB130197). Lemongrass oil at 10% and 5% concentration killed all mites within 10 min and 25 min, respectively. Then, fixed cells were incubated with 1 mg/mL propidium iodide (PI) (Invitrogen, USA) in PBS at room temperature for 30 min. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Lemongrass oil should be considered as a promising miticidal and ovicidal agent for scabies control. The hatching rate of positive control groups was 8.3% (Fig 1). Lemongrass (Cymbopogen citratus) oil is reported to possess pharmacological properties including antiparasitc, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory. A limitation is that all the tests in the present study were performed using S. scabies var. The findings from the present study suggest that the essential oils of lemongrass have potential in cancer prevention. Recently, nearly four dozen different histopathological variants of lung carcinoma have been recognized. Le migliori offerte per OLIO Essenziale PURO di CITRONELLA 21oz Cymbopogon citratus distillata Uncut naturale sono su eBay Confronta prezzi e caratteristiche di … essential oil, but had a signiﬁcant effect on their percentages. Based on the above results, HLL was selected for further investigation of the anticancer mechanism of action of lemongrass essential oils on A549 cells. Eggs were considered dead if they failed to hatch after 5 days. Copyright: © 2020 Li et al. Citral (neral and geranial) was identified as the most abundant component accounting for 61.20%–76.46% of both essential oils. Lemongrass Essential Oil Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus L.), which is a species of grass, is adapted to warm climatic conditions. The membrane was blocked with 5% nonfat skim milk at room temperature for 1 h, followed by washing with PBS containing 0.1% Tween-20. All of these species are native to South Asia and Southeast Asia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of lemongrass oil against the mites and eggs of Sarcoptes scabiei. Results are given as the mean standard error of the mean (SEM). Unfortunately, most chemical miticides are suboptimal, as they are either associated with moderate to severe side effects and/or require multiple treatments due to limited ovicidal activity [4,5]. The single species S. scabiei infests different mammalian hosts in 17 families and 7 orders including humans and rabbits. Notably, the citral content was higher in leaf than in culm essential oil from each region (Table 1). Copyright © 2020 Duong Thu Trang et al. In conjunction with education about its limitations and possible side effects, lemongrass oil, which extracted from a plant widely grown in tropical regions, should be considered a promising miticide against scabies, considering that it possesses significant activity against both Sarcoptes mites and eggs. According to the World Health Organization, more than 80% of the world’s population relies on folk medicine for their primary healthcare needs. There are two major types of lung cancer accounting for approximately 85% of all lung cancers: small cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MassFinder 4.0 software was used for data analysis. We aimed to study the effects of their essential oils on cancer cell lines. These results suggested that the intrinsic pathway may be one of the mechanisms of HLL-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Statistical analyses were performed with GraphPad Prism 6.0 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA). The cells were seeded in 96-well plates at a concentration of 1 × 105 cells/well and treated with various concentrations of essential oils (0.3 1, 3, 10, and 30 μg/mL) and incubated in a humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere at 37°C. The main chemical compounds reported in C. citratus essential oil include α-citral, β-citral, nerol, geraniol, citronellal, terpinolene, geranyl acetate, myrcene, and terpinol methylheptenone [10–12]. In addition, resistance to the mostly used miticides has emerged . Annexin-V and PI staining for apoptosis detection was performed using an FITC Annexin-V/Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Invitrogen, USA). Suitable for use in aromatherapy, soap making, skincare & cosmetics, bath bombs, oil burners and diffusers. Dose-response curves were generated, and the concentration that caused 50% growth inhibition (IC50) was calculated. Lemongrass oil is a mixture (Table 1), no study has clearly showed which compounds are responsible for the allergic reactions. A filter paper was placed at the bottom of a Petri dish and impregnated with each solution (0.3 mL). Material Safety Data Sheet: Lemongrass Oil Organic Page 1 of 7 24 CHATHAM PLACE, BRIGHTON, BN1 3TN (UK) TEL. Scabies was added to the WHO list of neglected tropical diseases in 2017, which highlights the substantial global health and economic burden, especially in low income populations [2,3]. e0008225. The lemongrasses (C. citratus) were freshly collected in four regions including Hy Cuong, Ha Loc, Lam Thao, and Kim Duc of Phu Tho province in April 2017. cuniculi instead of var. The oil was stored in dark glass bottles and kept at 4°C until use. The LT50 value for lemongrass oil at the concentration of 10%, 5%, 1%, 0.5% and 0.1% was 4 min, 9 min, 4 h, 25.5 h and 42.5 h, respectively (Table 4), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008225.t002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008225.t003, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008225.t004. Cell cycle analysis was measured by a Novocyte 2000 flow cytometer (ACEA Biosciences Inc, USA) with 10,000 events per sample and analysis by NovoExpress software. GC/MS analysis showed that monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the major chemical groups in C. citratus essential oils. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil is a type of essential oil often used in aromatherapy and by natural medicine practitioners for a variety of purposes, including reducing inflammation, relieving headaches, improving dandruff, and easing indigestion. Citral (neral and geranial), the major component of C. citratus essential oil, was reported to have cytotoxic activities against various human leukemia cell lines and to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells by activating procaspase-3 . Experimental models of rabbit and pig are suitable for the collection of large number of mites and they are well acceptable models for research purpose . In the current study, all Sarcoptes mites were live after 24 h immersed in paraffin oil and all eggs hatched when only treated with paraffin oil. There was a significant decrease in hatching rate of Sarcoptes eggs exposed to all concentrations of lemongrass oil. Lemongrass belongs to the Poaceae family (the grasses), and its genus is Cymbopogon. A study demonstrated that citral has the best ovicidal and miticidal activity against Tetranycchus urticae, the two-spotted spider mite, compared to 33 commercial essential oils and compounds . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008225, Editor: Aysegul Taylan Ozkan, Hitit University, Faculty of Medicine, TURKEY, Received: September 26, 2019; Accepted: March 17, 2020; Published: April 6, 2020. Table 1 Effect of drying methods on essential oil percentage (%) in the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (on dry wt. Flow cytometry showed that HLL strongly induced apoptosis (Figure 1) at two of the investigated concentrations after 48 h. Apoptosis was induced in 35.14% of A549 cells (32.12% in early apoptosis and 3.02% in late apoptosis) after 1 μg/mL HLL treatment. Component relative contents were calculated based on the total ion current without standardization. No, Is the Subject Area "Mites" applicable to this article? The Ha Loc leaf essential oil (HLL) exhibited the most potent effects on A549 and H1975 cells, with IC50 values of 1.73 ± 0.37 and 4.01 ± 0.30 μg/mL, respectively. Natural products provide invaluable opportunities for new drug discoveries due to the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Notably, camphene, valerianol, and epi-α-muurolol were found only in culm oil but not in leaf oil. Guangxi Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Quality Standards, Guangxi Institute of Traditional Medical and Pharmaceutical sciences, Nanning, China, Affiliations R V Essential Puro Lemongrass Essenziale Olio 300ml (10oz)- Cymbopogon Citratus (100% Puro e Naturale Steam Distilled) Pure Lemongrass Essential Oil: Amazon.it: Bellezza and Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. The lemongrass oil was diluted to five concentrations (10%, 5%, 1%, 0.5%, and 0.1%) with paraffin oil. Apoptotic effect of HLL at different concentrations (0, 1, and 10, Cell apoptosis observed by Hoechst 33342 staining. To evaluate the cytotoxic activities of the C. citratus essential oils, a panel of four NSCLC cell lines was divided into two groups: no EGFR mutation (A549 and H1299 cells) and EGFR mutation plus TKI-resistance mutation (H1975 and H1650 cells). As shown in Figure 2, compared to untreated cells, typical morphological alterations including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation were observed in HLL treatment groups. The myrcene content was higher in leaf oil than in culm oil. Control of scabies is predominantly performed by the use of synthetic miticides with topical agents (e.g. Lemongrass oil is extracted from the plants of the either of the species – Cymbopogon flexuosus or Cymbopogon citratus or Cymbopogon pendulus - in the Cymbopogon (lemongrass) genus family. The obtained oils were stored at −5°C until use. All essential oils exhibited cytotoxicity in the tested cells. The cells were analyzed by Novocyte 2000 (ACEA Biosciences Inc, USA). Among the tested oils, HLL exhibited to be the most sensitive one to A549 cells compared to other samples. The chemical profile of lemongrass oil analysis in this study was comparable with that described previously from plants collected in Cameroon . Cymbopogon citratus is a plant widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. A proapoptosis effect of the polysaccharide fraction of C. citratus has also been demonstrated . Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Approximately 98% of lung cancers are carcinomas or tumors derived from transformed cells of epithelial lineage . No, Is the Subject Area "Eggs" applicable to this article? Considering all these properties, lemongrass oil should be considered a promissing miticide against scabies. Camptothecin was used as a positive control. The miticidal efficacy was significantly better than the positive control of 25% benzyl benzoate which with a mean mortality rate of 66 min. (lemongrass), belonging to the genus Cymbopogon, is widely used spices in tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. basis). PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is the top Open Access tropical medicine journal, featuring an International Editorial Board and increased support for developing country authors. In previous studies, the essential oil of C. citratus was shown to exert various pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial , insecticidal , and cytotoxic activities [8, 9]. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) Essential Oil. Medicinal plants have been a useful source of novel anticancer drugs. Parasitology Department, College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, China, Affiliation the major compounds contained in essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus, and Cymbopogon nardus were geranial (33.01%) and elemol (44.14%), respectively. However, its activity against S. scabiei has not been described so far. Protein concentration in the supernatants was determined using the Bradford method. Mites showing persistent immobility, even after repeated agitation with a needle, were considered dead. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil of C. citratus was 0.062% up to 70% to strains of C. albicansand 100% to the strains of C. tropicalis. Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus L. ), which is a species of grass, is adapted to warm climatic conditions. (UK) 0845 310 8066 International Tel. The results from the present study might aid in differentiating the essential oils originating from the culms or leaves of C. citratus. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group. Living mites of all stages (adults, nymphs and larvae) and eggs were isolated one by one with a needle for test under a stereomicroscope. The data strongly suggested that the intrinsic pathway may play an important role in the apoptotic effects of HLL. The percentages of Annexin-V + /PI− (apoptosis cells), Annexin-V/PI− (living cells), and Annexin-V + /PI+ (necrotic cells) staining were determined after marking for the positive and negative population. We conducted experiments to assess the miticidal and ovicidal efficacy of lemongrass oil against Sarcoptes mites collected from naturally infected rabbits in China. In Vietnam, 22,000 people are diagnosed with lung cancer and 19,500 die from the disease yearly. Then, 0.5 mL of each solution was added to the Petri dishes. Yes The authors would like to thank Dr. Jair L. Siqueira-Neto for revision and proofreading. The Hy Cuong leaf essential oil (HCL) showed the strongest effect on H1299 cells, with an IC50 value of 2.45 ± 0.21 μg/mL. A549 cells were plated in 6 cm plates and allowed to attach for 24 h and then treated with or without essential oils for 48 h. Only adherent cells were harvested and then washed twice with ice-cold PBS. Lemongrass essential oil is a powerful essential oil; do not exceed the stated drops in blends. Edited by: Anand Akhila. Citation: Li M, Liu B, Bernigaud C, Fischer K, Guillot J, Fang F (2020) Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil: A promising miticidal and ovicidal agent against Sarcoptes scabiei. Lemongrass oil was used in five concentrations (10%, 5%, 1%, 0.5%, and 0.1%) to test the activity against Sarcoptes eggs. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The sector mass analyzer was set to scan from 35 to 500 amu. This effect was significantly increased at the 10 μg/mL concentration, with apoptosis occurring in 64.29% of cells (57.87% early apoptosis and 6.42% late apoptosis). Although the composition of C. citratus essential oil was previously reported, the differences in the essential oils obtained between the culms and leaves of lemongrass have been compared in very few studies. Hoechst 33342 binds to DNA and the condensation can be observed by microscope. here. In this study, we extracted and analyzed the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected in Southern China and further assessed its miticidal and ovicidal efficacy against S. scabiei from rabbits. An HP-5MS fused silica capillary column (60 m × 0.25 mm id. The cellular proliferation of this panel of four NSCLC cell lines was examined by MTT assay over a 48 h period in the presence of increasing concentrations of various C. citratus essential oils. On screening of 15 essential oils at 0.33 μL/mL, Cymbopogon citratus oil caused 100% mycelial inhibition against aforesaid dominant fungi. The yield of essential oil was calculated using the following formula: Essential oils yield (%) = net weight of oils (g) / total weight of fresh leaves (g) × 100. Investigation, Paraffin oil is considered to be a satisfactory solvent for dissolving essential oils in bioassay. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Guangxi University (approval no: GXU2019-019). Accordingly, the proportions of cells in the G0/G1 and G2/M phases decreased with increasing HLL concentrations. There is no significant difference between the positive control and the lemongrass oil at concentrations of 10% (p = 0.719), 5% (p = 0.220) and 1% (p = 0.121). (Cymbopogon citratus) and evaluate its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against five food-borne microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholera and Escherichia coli). Data of above experiments were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 software and were expressed as the mean ± SD. The cell cycle is closely associated with apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest leads to apoptosis via effects on various signaling molecules and regulatory proteins. hominis. For that purpose, Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) In a previous study, the lethal time of 10% and 5% tea tree oil was reported to be 30 and 90 min, respectively . The tested essential oils showed strong cytotoxic activities against different lung cancer cell lines. Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. Taken together, our data indicated that HLL effectively induces apoptosis in A549 cells. Helium was the carrier gas with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The essential oil of the plant is used in aromatherapy. The animals were handled in accordance with guidelines established by the French and European regulations for care and use of animals for scientific purposes. Yes Duong Thu Trang and Hoang Thi Kim Van contributed equally to this work. This research was supported by the Department of Science and Technology, Phu Tho Province, Vietnam, and Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (grant number: TDNDTP.02/19-21). The cells were cultured at 37 C in RMPI1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 U/mL penicillin, and 100 μg/mL streptomycin in a 5% CO2 incubator. However, previous studies indicated that this compound exhibited weak cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines [22–24]. Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as West Indian lemon grass or simply lemon grass, is a tropical plant native to Maritime Southeast Asia and introduced to many tropical regions.. Cymbopogon citratus is often sold in stem form.
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