Lucius, the praetor, fled from Alba, with six cohorts: Rutilus, Lupus, the praetor, from Tarracina, with three. In this case it is truer then most, however, I do not believe one should naturally discount it for that reason, but it does need to be mentioned. Caesar calling his legions off from their work, and ordering the horse to hold themselves in readiness, marshaled his army: for to appear to decline an engagement contrary to the opinion of the soldiers and the general voice, would have been attended with great disadvantage. [1.10] Roscius and Lucius Caesar, having received this message, went to Capua, where they met the consuls and Pompey, and declared to them Caesar's terms. [1.44] The manner of fighting of those soldiers was to run forward with great impetuosity and boldly take a post, and not to keep their ranks strictly, but to fight in small scattered parties: if hard pressed they thought it no disgrace to retire and give up the post, being accustomed to this manner of fighting among the Lusitanians and other barbarous nations; for it commonly happens that soldiers are strongly influenced by the customs of those countries in which they have spent much time. In expectation of this he led three legions out of the camp, and, drawing up his army in an advantageous position, he ordered the advanced men of one legion to hasten forward and seize the eminence. This opinion prevailed in the council, and the next day, at the dawn, they resolved to set forward. Counting the times a shield was pierced by arrows as a sign of courage...it should be a term we use to this day: "Check my shield, count the arrows...I did my best at the meeting.". Petreius and Afranius, having got this opportunity, retired to their camp. [1.1] When Caesar's letter was delivered to the consuls, they were with great difficulty, and a hard struggle of the tribunes, prevailed on to suffer it to be read in the senate; but the tribunes could not prevail, that any question should be put to the senate on the subject of the letter. Upon notice of his approach, Thermus, distrusting the affections of the townsmen, drew his cohorts out of it and made his escape; his soldiers deserted him on the road, and returned home. Aris and Phillips Classical Texts. He made use of such arguments as he thought would tend to bring them to reason. Cneius Pompey had left the city the day before, and was on his march to those legions which he had received from Caesar, and had disposed in winter quarters in Apulia. On receiving this message, the Massilians had shut their gates against Caesar, and invited over to them the Albici, who had formerly been in alliance with them, and who inhabited the mountains that overhung Massilia: they had likewise conveyed the corn from the surrounding country, and from all the forts into the city; had opened armories in the city; and were repairing the walls, the fleet, and the gates. Fortunately, the Penguin Classics edition I own has a Glossary of Persons and Places in the back to make it easier to. But the blockade and works round the town prevented his escape. Casear's The Civil War is actually three related books: a long one by Julius himself on the initial crossing of the Rubicon, the battles in Spain and defeated Pompey in Alexandria. Caesar mentions Antony frequently as a great soldier and general, loyal, and full of daring initiative, and 'Shakspere' barely touches on his position as a Flamen Dialis and basically a High Priest of Divi Iulius. The bravest of these were from the Aquitani and the mountaineers, who border on the Province in Gaul. It gives a fascinating look into Roman tactics--how most of the time, the generals were constructing fortifications or securing a corn supply rather than fighting. The Civil War is Caesar's masterly account of the celebrated war between himself and his great rival Pompey, from the crossing of the Rubicon in January 49 B.C. A great change is shortly made in the face of affairs. Resistance at Massilia 7. [1.53] Afranius and Petreius, and their friends, sent fuller and more circumstantial accounts of these things to Rome, to their acquaintances. The execution of this business he gave in charge to Quintus Fufius Kalenus, one of his lieutenants. I could only find one instance, concerning a certain Ligarius during the African War, where he executed a fellow citizen, but the soldier in question had been pardoned previously. The bridge being finished, five powerful states being joined to Caesar, a way opened for the receiving of corn, and the rumors of the assistance of legions which were said to be on their march, with Pompey at their head, through Mauritania, having died away, several of the more distant states revolt from Afranius, and enter into league with Caesar. That is probably due to the one-sidedness of the story, a result of history as written by the victor. Similar hopes of a province and armies, which he expected to share with Pompey on account of his connection with him, urged on Scipio; and moreover [he was influenced by] the fear of being called to trial, and the adulation and an ostentatious display of himself and his friends in power, who at that time had great influence in the republic, and courts of judicature. in Alexandria, 3 years before his terrible murder in the Roman Senate? These he covered over with earth and mold, that he might not be prevented from access to them to defend them, and in the front and on both sides he protected them with a parapet of wicker work; and on every fourth one raised a turret, two stories high, to secure them the better from being attacked by the shipping and set on fire. But Curio, as war was being openly prepared against Caesar, advised him to concentrate his troops, and rescue the republic now oppressed by a few daring men. By Julius Caesar. [1.13] Upon news of Caesar's approach, the senate of Auximum went in a body to Attius Varus; and told him that it was not a subject for them to determine upon: yet neither they, nor the rest of the freemen would suffer Caius Caesar, a general, who had merited so well of the republic, after performing such great achievements, to be excluded from their town and walls; wherefore he ought to pay some regard to the opinion of posterity, and his own danger. Maureen Mccullough's 'fictional' Roman series was the clincher for me, so much so, that I also collect. When they approached a valley or declivity, and the advanced men could not impart assistance to the tardy, our horse threw their darts at them from the rising grounds with advantage; then their affairs were in a perilous situation; the only plan left was, that whenever they came near such places, they should give orders to the legions to halt, and by a violent effort repulse our horse; and these being forced to give way, they should suddenly, with the utmost speed, run all together down to the valley, and having passed it, should face about again on the next hill. The Civil WarIntroduction Historical background Caesar - the man and his aims The Civil War and the continuations Bibliographical Note Translator's Note Caesar: The Civil War Part I: The Struggle Begins 1. I'm also pretty sure it's a subtly-slanted political move as this was written and dispersed to middle-brow aristocrats throughout the empire following the campaign. Gaius Julius Caesar The Civil War Book 1. About a third part of their army being dismissed in two days, Caesar ordered two of his legions, to go before, the rest to follow the vanquished enemy; that they should encamp at a small distance from each other. Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, and notable author of Latin prose. which ended in the rout of the latter at Pharsalus, perhaps Caesar's most notable military victory. Our men had to retreat this way, as they had, through their eagerness, advanced too inconsiderately. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. [1.83] Afranius's five legions were drawn up in two lines, the auxiliary cohorts formed the third line, and acted as reserves. Invaluable not only as first-person eyewitness history to what was really going on in the corrupt Roman Republic that drove such a great man to rebel against it, and institute the phenomenal Pax Romana of 100 years, the greatest in history since the best of the Egyptian pharaohs, but as a realistic view of Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra and who they really were. He desired the other legions, which were passing the winter at a great distance, to follow close after him. All distinctions between things human and divine, are confounded. A military leader of legendary genius, Caesar was also a great writer, recording the events of his life with incomparable immediacy and power. The Civil War is a tense and gripping depiction of his struggle with Pompey over the leadership of Republican Rome – a conflict that spanned the entire Roman world, from Gaul and Spain to Asia and Africa. [1.67] There was a debate in the council between Afranius and Petreius, and the time of marching was the subject. For Pompey, on leaving the city, had declared in the open senate, that he would hold in the same degree of estimation, those who staid in Rome and those in Caesar's camp. The two parties engage, and as Afranius's men had reached the eminence first, our men were repulsed, and, on a reinforcement being sent, they were obliged to turn their backs and retreat to the standards of legions. His compassion extended to those who surrendered to him, as he allowed the opposing soldiers to either join him or return to private life. Cato was in Sicily, repairing the old ships of war, and demanding new ones from the states, and these things he performed with great zeal. Even Pompey himself did not dare to oppose them. He sent away the camp followers to the more distant states, and endeavored to remedy the present scarcity by every resource in his power. If this was complied with, he would injure no person; that these were the last and only conditions of peace.". While they were deliberating on these matters, intelligence was brought them that their watering parties were attacked by our horse: upon which information, they dispose several parties of horse and auxiliary foot along the road, and intermix some legionary cohorts, and begin to throw up a rampart from the camp to the water, that they might be able to procure water within their lines, both without fear, and without a guard. Caesar therefore thought it time at length to give over the attempt which he had often made in vain, and act with energy in the war. To so great height was their expectation raised, that they were carried away, heart and soul, each to different objects, what would become of the Corfinians, what of Domitius, what of Lentulus, what of the rest; what event would be the consequence of another. Reading this served to humanize. Ive read this short work (130 pages in paperback) a few times, but it has never left a deep impression on me. The first night, no one went out for water. So much bunk has been written and filmed about them. [1.49] But Afranius's army had abundance of everything; a great stock of corn had been provided and laid in long before, a large quantity was coming in from the whole province: they had a good store of forage. He discovered that the consuls were gone to Dyrrachium with a considerable part of the army, and that Pompey remained at Brundusium with twenty cohorts; but could not find out, for a certainty, whether Pompey staid behind to keep possession of Brundusium, that he might the more easily command the whole Adriatic sea, with the extremities of Italy and the coast of Greece, and be able to conduct the war on either side of it, or whether he remained there for want of shipping; and, being afraid that Pompey would come to the conclusion that he ought not to relinquish Italy, he determined to deprive him of the means of communication afforded by the harbor of Brundusium. So much so that in the past 4-5 years I have collected 180 books, both Novel and biography regarding Caesar and the Roman Republic. Caesar mentions Antony frequently as a great soldier and general, loyal, and full. The Gallic War is Caesar’s own account of his two invasions of Britain and of conquering most of what is today France, Belgium, and Switzerland. But, nevertheless, he was ready to condescend to any terms, and to endure every thing for the sake of the republic. Book 1. We’d love your help. The generals of Pompey's army did almost the same thing, and for the same reason: and the horse had frequent skirmishes with each other. Marcellus, overawed by his reproofs, retracted his opinion. To the other provinces praetors were sent, nor was time granted as in former years, to refer to the people on their appointment, nor to make them take the usual oath, and march out of the city in a public manner, robed in the military habit, after offering their vows: a circumstance which had never before happened. It is more difficult to follow because, unless one knows the chief officers on both sides, one is not always sure whether one is reading about Caesar's forces or those of Pompey. Of these he made up about three hundred horse. Three more from each legion followed them, as reserves: and three others were behind these. In High School I chose Julius Caesar for my senior theme and although I am not a 'history buff' in general the man and his times have a strange affect on my reading habits. Philip, one of the tribunes, stopped [the appointment of] Sylla; the resolutions respecting the other matters passed. [1.14] Intelligence of this being brought to Rome, so great a panic spread on a sudden that when Lentulus, the consul, came to open the treasury, to deliver money to Pompey by the senate's decree, immediately on opening the hallowed door he fled from the city. At his command they send the fleet to all parts; they seize all the merchantmen they could meet with, and carry them into the harbor; they apply the nails, timber, and rigging, with which they were furnished to rig and refit their other vessels. However, the matter was deferred, and both armies kept under arms till sunset; when they both returned to their camp. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Book I The outbreak of civil war. [1.40] Fabius sounded the inclinations of the neighboring states by letters and messengers. [1.12] In the mean time, being informed that Thermus the praetor was in possession of Iguvium, with five cohorts, and was fortifying the town, but that the affections of all the inhabitants were very well inclined toward himself, he detached Curio with three cohorts, which he had at Ariminum and Pisaurus. For having advanced four miles, and being very much harassed by our horse, they took post on a high mountain, and there in trenched themselves on the front only, facing the enemy; and did not take their baggage off their cattle. Here began Caesar's celebrated affair with Cleopatra. Having obtained it, he was escorted out of town; nor did the soldiers of Domitius leave him till they brought him into Caesar's presence. [1.62] Notice of this being given by the scouts, Caesar continued his work day and night, with very great fatigue to the soldiers, to drain the river, and so far effected his purpose, that the horse were both able and bold enough, though with some difficulty and danger, to pass the river; but the foot had only their shoulders and upper part of their breast above the water, so that their fording it was retarded, not only by the depth of the water, but also by the rapidity of the current. There's source material and then there's source material. For so far were they from deriving any assistance from their horse (of which they had a large number), that they were obliged to receive them into the center of their army, and themselves protect them, as they were daunted by former battles. [1.24] Pompey, being informed of what had passed at Corfinium, marches from Luceria to Canusium, and thence to Brundusium. To his soldiers he made a recompense in money for those things, a just valuation being made. One of the greatest men who ever lived, tells you what he was thinking during one of the most exciting periods of human history. He, after concluding the rest of his speech, and stating for what purpose he had come, told Caesar that he had commands of a private nature for him from Pompey; that Pompey wished to clear himself to Caesar, lest he should impute those actions which he did for the republic, to a design of affronting him; that he had ever preferred the interest of the state to his own private connections; that Caesar, too, for his own honor, ought to sacrifice his desires and resentment to the public good, and not vent his anger so violently against his enemies, lest in his hopes of injuring them, he should injure the republic. After making these arrangements, he ordered his soldiers to go on board without noise, and disposed here and there, on the wall and turrets, some light-armed veterans, archers and slingers. The chief management of the war was intrusted to him. But not a man murmured at the fatigue, because they imagined that there would be a period to all their toils, if they could cut off the enemy from the Ebro and intercept their convoys. He staid only seven days before Corfinium, and marched into Apulia through the country of the Marrucinians, Frentanian's and Larinates. Both sides fought with great courage and resolution; nor did the Albici, a hardy people, bred on the highlands and inured to arms, fall much short of our men in valor: and being lately come from the Massilians, they retained in their minds their recent promises: and the wild shepherds, encouraged by the hope of liberty, were eager to prove their zeal in the presence of their masters. to Pompey's death and the start of the Alexandrian War in the autumn of the following year. All the consul's friends, all Pompey's connections, all those who bore any ancient enmity to Caesar, were forced into the senate house. [1.87] Caesar promised to supply them with corn from the present time till they arrived at the river Var. When his approach was announced, Lucius Plancus, who had the command of those legions, compelled by the emergency, took post on a rising ground; and drew up his army with two fronts, that it might not be surrounded by the cavalry. It sounds less like two warring parties and more like children taunting each other. That for his part, he would not avail himself of their present humiliation, or his present advantage, to require terms by which his power might be increased, but only that those armies, which they had maintained for so many years to oppose him, should be disbanded: for six legions had been sent into Spain, and a seventh raised there, and many and powerful fleets provided, and generals of great military experience sent to command them, for no other purpose than to oppose him: that none of these measures were adopted to keep the Spains in peace, or for the use of the province, which, from the length of the peace, stood in need of no such aid; that all these things were long since designed against him; that against him a new sort of government was established, that the same person should be at the gates of Rome, to direct the affairs of the city; and though absent, have the government of two most warlike provinces for so many years: that against him the laws of the magistrates had been altered; that the late praetors and consuls should not be sent to govern the provinces as had been the constant custom, but persons approved of and chosen by a faction. Caesar builds on experiences he gained and documented in The Gallic Wars, such as British ocean-style ship-building techniques. [1.25] Having delivered this message he marched to Brundusium with six legions, four of them veterans: the rest those which he had raised in the late levy and completed on his march, for he had sent all Domitius's cohorts immediately from Corfinium to Sicily. I only read the first piece, the appendices, and the insightful intro written by Jane Gardner (also providing an excellent and easy to read translation). The civil wars; with an English translation by A.G. Peskett Item Preview ... History Civil War, 49-45 B.C Publisher London Heinemann Collection robarts; toronto Digitizing sponsor A military leader of legendary genius, Caesar was also a great writer, recording the events of his life with incomparable immediacy and power. The subsequent Wars in Africa and Spain and Rome were written, apparently, by other hands, fellow soldiers and eyewitnesses. Thus, though engaged with superior numbers, he sustained the furious charge of the legions and the horse. The same was done by some of the nobility of Spain, whom they summoned to their assistance, and kept in their camp as hostages. An engagement taking place there with Caesar's advanced-guard, Domitius's men were quickly beaten off from the bridge and retreated precipitately into the town. Not a moment passed in which their rear was not engaged with our horse. The question was immediately put on their interposition. A fleet being thus furnished with every necessary, he advanced with great confidence against our ships, commanded by Decimus Brutus. Everything else hundreds of years after that, in Plutarch and Josephus, is second- or third-hand gossip almost, and anti-Divi at that, written by, astonishing as it is, by pro-Senate apologists! Upon this information Caesar ordered the signal to be given and the military shout to be raised for packing up the baggage. 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