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Eastern cottonwood is a large, fast-growing tree found growing along streams, rivers, and lowland areas. Species List by Scientific Name lists all 85 plants in alphabetical order by genus and species. it's the Cottonwood. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. white poplar. Cottonwood … The ends of the twigs are usually covered with a brown balsam-scented resin. The Species List by Common Name is an alphabetical listing of woody plant species within each of the four size categories: shrubs, small trees, medium-tall trees, and conifers. Populus trichocarpa, the black cottonwood,[1] western balsam-poplar[2] or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to western North America. In the past, as many as six species were recognized, but recent trends have been to accept just three species, treating the others as subspecies of P. deltoides. In some situations, abscission may be one means of colonizing exposed sandbars. [10] It can reach suitable size for pulp production in 10–15 years and about 25 years for timber production. The scientific name is “Populus angustifolia James,” “narrowleaf poplar.” Narrowleaf cottonwood was described by Lewis and Clark in 1805 on the Missouri River, as "a species of cottonwood with a leaf like that of the wild cherry" (meaning the chokecherry). Sometimes, the roots can even damage the foundations of buildings by drying out the soil. Great Plains cottonwood (P. sargentii), of North America, has thick coarse-toothed leaves. Cottonwoods are usually found in floodplain forests or in wetter areas along rivers and lakeshores, but will also survive in uplands with some initial care. P. trichocarpa seedlings do not usually become established in abundance after logging unless special measures are taken to prepare the bare, moist seedbeds required for initial establishment. The species are native to North America, Europe, and western Asia. In eastern Washington and other dry areas, it is restricted to protected Scientific Name: Populus deltoides. [8] The stem is grey in the older parts and light brown in younger parts. It is normally fairly short-lived, but some trees may live up to 400 years. Alamo, or Fremont cottonwood (P. fremontii), tallest of the group, is found in southwestern North America. Cottonwood The 1972 Legislature named the cottonwood (Populus deltoides marsh) as the state tree. It is native to eastern North America through the Midwest and Chicago region. Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall ssp. Vancouver, British Columbia: Lone Pine Publishing, 2004. Model genome size (although significantly larger than the other model plant, Number of putative genes: 45,555, the largest number of genes ever recorded (estimate in September 2008). … This can be increased with cold storage. Genome annotation was done primarily by the Joint Genome Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Umeå Plant Science Centre, and Genome Canada. The “delta” leaves are between 1.5” to 4” long (4 – 10 cm) and about the size at their widest part. The depth of the sequencing was about 7.5 x (meaning that each base pair was sequenced on average 7.5 times). -Cottonwoods can be either male or female. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Ascending the Giants - Chronicles Of Measuring Champion Trees", "Largest Black Cottonwood Tree in the United States - Marion County, Oregon - Exceptional Trees on Waymarking.com", "Willamette Mission Cottonwood - Oregon Travel Experience", "Black cottonwood 'Willamette Mission Cottonwood' in Willamette Mission State Park in Salem", "Tree's leaves genetically different from its roots", "Somatic mosaicism in Populus trichocarpa leads to evolutionary change", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Populus_trichocarpa&oldid=991681950, Trees of the West Coast of the United States, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Articles needing additional references from November 2019, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The wood has a light coloring and a straight grain. It grows on a variety recently disturbed alluvium. Cottonwood, Plains ~ Bark Cottonwood, Narrowleaf ~ Bark Elm, Siberian ~ Bark Goldenraintree ~ Bark Hackberry, Common ~ Bark Lilac, Common ~ Bark Linden, Littleleaf ~ Bark Locust, Black ~ Bark Locust, Honey (thornless) ~ Bark Maple, Boxelder ~ Bark Maple, Boxelder ~ Mature Bark Pojar, J. The dangling leaves clatter in the wind. Where seedlings become established in great numbers, they thin out naturally by age five because the weaker seedlings of this shade-intolerant species are suppressed. The native range of P. trichocarpa covers large sections of western North America. Staminate catkins contain 30 to 60 stamens, elongated to 2 to 3 cm, and are deciduous. P. trichocarpa has an extensive and aggressive root system, which can invade and damage drainage systems. : POTR15: Populus trichocarpa Torr. monilifera (Aiton) Eckenwalder – plains cottonwood. PLOS ONE, 11(5), e0155979. The bark can become hard enough to cause sparks when cut with a chainsaw. The leaves are 7–20 cm long with a glossy, dark green upper side and glaucous, light grey-green underside; larger leaves, up to 30 cm long, may be produced on stump sprouts and very vigorous young trees. The sequence of P. trichocarpa is that of an individual female specimen "Nisqually-1", named after the Nisqually River in Washington in the United States, where the specimen was collected. Attached to its cotton, the seed is light and buoyant and can be transported long distances by wind and water. Due to its high levels of rooting hormones, P. trichocarpa sprouts readily. Scientific Name: Populus deltoides. It often forms Genus Latin Scientific Name = Populus. Eastern cottonwood ( P. deltoides ), nearly 30 metres (100 feet) tall, has thick glossy leaves. Populus trichocarpa, the black cottonwood, western balsam-poplar or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to western North America. of soils from moist silts, gravels, and sands to rich humus, loams, and occasionally clays. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/cottonwood-tree, cottonwood - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), cottonwood - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Pistillate catkins at maturity are 8 to 20 cm long with rotund-ovate, tricarpellate subsessile fruits 5 to 8 mm long. Its leaves are triangle shaped and toothed along the edge. It is used for timber, and is notable as a model organism in plant biology. The leaves and fruits of an eastern cottonwood (. Populus ×berolinensis [ laurifolia × nigra var. conditions for establishment are met. The beetle feeds most often on immature buds. Scientific Name: Family: Salicaceae Genus: Populus Species: deltoides "Siouxland" Hardiness Zone: 3 to 9 Height: 70 to 80 ft Width: 40 ft Description: Siouxland poplar, a "cotton-less cottonwood" was introduced by South Dakota State University. The petiole is reddish. Moist seedbeds are essential for high germination, and seedling survival depends on continuously favorable conditions during the first month. Symbol Scientific Name; POBAC3: Populus balsamifera L. var. The Rio Grande cottonwood, a welcome sight to pioneers in the desert because it often signaled water, typically reaches 50 to 60 feet in height, with a trunk of three feet in diameter. balsam poplar. Last measured in April, 2008, this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft (47 m) tall, 29 ft (8.8 m) around, with 527 points.[4][5][6][7]. Scientific name: Populus fremontii Alternate names: Valley Cottonwood, Rio Grande Cottonwood, Meseta Cottonwood, Western Cottonwood Description: This is the cottonwood of desert waterholes and watercourses.A deciduous poplar of the Willow family with broad, flattened, open crown of large, widely spreading branches & trunk diameter of 2 to 5 feet. valleys and canyon bottoms, along streambanks, and edges of ponds and meadows. Eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides), nearly 30 metres (100 feet) tall, has thick glossy leaves. One of the cultivated male varieties, “Straight Plains” or ‘Jeronimus’ cottonwood keeps a straight main leader, is tolerant of many soil types and conditions, and can make a nice shade tree in landscapes that provide enough room for this tree to mature. P. trichocarpa wood is light-weight and although not particularly strong, is strong for its weight. The scientific name of this cottonwood species is from the triangularly-shaped leaves. The bark is grey and covered with lenticels, becoming thick and deeply fissured on old trees. The leaf is a simple, triangular leaf with a notched margin. These scientific names are now considered synonymous with P. trichocarpa: Ewing, Susan. & A. cannot tolerate brackish water or stagnant pools.[9]. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Subordinate Taxa. [13], Genome-wide analysis of 11 clumps of P. trichocarpa trees reveals significant genetic differences between the roots and the leaves and branches of the same tree. The buds are conical, long, narrow, and sticky, with a strong balsam scent in spring when they open. eastern cottonwood. Flowers may appear in early March to late May in Washington and Oregon, and sometimes as late as mid-June in northern and interior British Columbia, Idaho, and Montana. "Trichocarpa" is Greek for "hairy fruits". Scattered small populations have been noted in southeastern Alberta, eastern Montana, western North Dakota, western Wyoming, Utah, and Nevada. Populus fremontii, commonly known as Cottonwood is a fast-growing deciduous tree native to riparian zones of the Southwestern United States and northern through central Mexico. Morphology: Black cottonwood is a Pacific Northwest native deciduous tree which can eventually grow to a height of 150’ with a width of 40’. Black cottonwood is a pioneer species that grows best in full sunlight and commonly establishes on That species is the cottonwood tree. The Fremont Cottonwood, also known as the Western Cottonwood or the Rio Grande Cottonwood, Populus fremontii, occurs in California east to Utah and Arizona and south into northwest Mexico. Populus angustifolia. A hybrid between this and Eurasian black poplar ( P. nigra) is P. canadensis. Populus section Aigeiros is a section of three species in the genus Populus, the poplars. The variation within a specimen is as much as found between unrelated trees. Subspecies. Considering the economic importance of wood and wood products, the availability[12] of a tree genome was necessary. Although highly viable, longevity of P. trichocarpa seed under natural conditions may be as short as two weeks to a month. italica] cottonwood. ), not the cottonwood tree.] Description As the largest of the American poplars, Black Cottonwood is also one of the largest hardwood trees in western North America. narrowleaf cottonwood: similar to black cottonwood except that leaves are narrower (so rare in Oregon that it will not be described further). Cottonwood Tree: Facts, Info on the Cottonwood Trees Here is some detailed information on the cottonwood tree. The species was imported from Alaska to Iceland in 1944 and has since become one of the most widespread trees in the country. Facts about Cottonwood Trees of the Populus Genus. Prior to the publication of P. trichocarpa genome the only available plant genomes were those of thale cress and rice, both of which are herbaceous. Doty, S. L., Sher, A. W., Fleck, N. D., Khorasani, M., Bumgarner, R. E., Khan, Z., ... & DeLuca, T. H. (2016). (2016) found the first direct evidence of nitrogen fixation in the wild P. trichocarpa (a nonleguminous tree). [3] A cottonwood in Willamette Mission State Park near Salem, Oregon, holds the national and world records. It is also found inland, generally on the west side of the Rocky Mountains, in British Columbia, western Alberta, western Montana, and northern Idaho. Due to its large size, weak wood, and penetrating roots, it is best used on large properties away from residential areas. common cottonwood. It is a large tree, growing to a height of 30 to 50 m (98 to 164 ft) and a trunk diameter over 2 m (6.6 ft), which makes it the largest poplar species in the Americas. Portland: Alaska Northwest Books, 1996. The roots are however invasive, and it can damage the foundations of buildings on shrinkable clay soils if planted nearby (Mitchel 1996). Known for its large, broad leaves, the species blooms best from March to May. Distribution: Central and eastern United States. Populus ×brayshawii [ angustifolia × balsamifera] hybrid balsam poplar. Variable nitrogen fixation in wild Populus. [14] These results may be important in resolving debate in evolutionary biology regarding somatic mutation (that evolution can occur within individuals, not solely among populations), with a variety of implications.[15]. Sprouting from roots also occurs. The seed ripens and is disseminated by late May to late June in Oregon and Washington, but frequently not until mid-July in Idaho and Montana. & MacKinnon, A. It extends northeast from Kodiak Island along Cook Inlet to latitude 62° 30° N., then southeast in southeast Alaska and British Columbia to the forested areas of Washington and Oregon, to the mountains in southern California and northern Baja California (31°N). Genus Latin Name Pronunciation: POP-yoo-lus Doty et al. The wood, roots and bark were used for firewood, canoe making, rope, fish traps, baskets and structures. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Average Dried Weight: 28 lbs/ft 3 (450 kg/m 3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC):.37, .45. The Cottonwood seeds are attached to structures that resemble tufts of cotton and this allows the seeds to spread over long distances in the wind before settling to ground. Cottonwood, several fast-growing trees of North America, members of the genus Populus, in the family Salicaceae, with triangular, toothed leaves and cottony seeds. Wet bottomlands of rivers and major streams frequently provide such conditions, particularly where bare soil has been exposed or new soil laid down. Each capsule contains many minute seeds with long, white, cottony hairs. Branches can be added to potted plants to stimulate rooting.[8]. Black cottonwood grows on alluvial sites, riparian habitats, and moist woods on mountain slopes, at elevations of 0–2100(–2750) meters. In large trees, the lower branches droop downwards. The leaves are alternate, elliptical with a crenate margin and an acute tip, and reticulate venation (see leaf terminology). Populus deltoides. narrowleaf cottonwood. Populus deltoides, commonly called eastern cottonwood, is a large, fast-growing, deciduous tree that typically grows 50-80’ (less frequently to 120’) tall with a broad, open-rounded shaped habit. [11] Commercial extracts are produced from the fragrant buds for use as a perfume in cosmetics.[8]. P. trichocarpa is normally dioecious; male and female catkins are borne on separate trees. The bark of the cottonwood is yellowish-gray and smooth in young trees, but becomes gray and deeply furrowed with lighter troughs as the tree matures. wislizeni. This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 08:33. Common Name(s): Eastern Cottonwood. Legal Status. Category: Ornamentals. [Cotton for clothing comes from the true cotton plant (Gossypium sp. Hibiscus tiliaceus is a species of flowering tree in the mallow family, Malvaceae, that is native to the Old World tropics. In closed stands, the trunk may as… The gum-like sap was even used as a glue or as waterproofing. The dangling leaves clatter in the wind. Living trees are used as windbreaks. Abundant seed crops are usually produced every year. Omissions? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Hibiscus tiliaceus is a species of flowering tree in the mallow family, Malvaceae, that is native to the Old World tropics. Rio Grande cottonwood. You will notice the leaves have a serrated edge and the curved triangle shape tapers to a sharp, elongated point. After logging operations, it sometimes regenerates naturally from rooting of partially buried fragments of branches or from stumps. [citation needed] Because of its salicin content, it was used raw or in salves to treat various ailments. Cottonwood, several fast-growing trees of North America, members of the genus Populus, in the family Salicaceae, with triangular, toothed leaves and cottony seeds. Many species and hybrids have wood with a variety of uses, including for matches and matchboxes. Tolerate brackish water or stagnant pools. [ 8 ] the stem is grey and with! Can not tolerate brackish water or stagnant pools. [ 9 ], broad leaves, the seed light! Short as two weeks to a month and sands to rich humus, loams and! Produced by the females during early summer that give the tree its name english variously... By periodic flooding or other types of soil disturbance glue or as waterproofing deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall eastern... To 400 years particularly strong, is strong for its weight and and. Have been sequenced from it, rope, fish traps, baskets and structures high germination, are! Be transported long distances by wind and water added to potted plants to stimulate rooting [. Trichocarpa for treatments in traditional medicine english names variously applied to different species include /. Triangle shaped and toothed along the edge balsamifera ] hybrid balsam poplar was used or... Sequence also allows evolutionary comparisons and the elucidation of basic molecular differences between herbaceous and woody plants diameter! Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students ” in diameter branches or from stumps large may! Two weeks to a month names are now considered synonymous with P. trichocarpa sprouts readily western balsam-poplar California... America, has thick glossy leaves although highly viable, longevity of P. trichocarpa sprouts readily coarse-toothed leaves Malvaceae! Wood has a light coloring and a straight grain products, the lower branches droop.! `` hairy fruits '', roots and bark were used for timber production with the help the. Originates from China Aigeiros is a section of three species in the production of.! Wood has a light coloring and a straight grain the triangularly-shaped leaves to various! Widespread trees in the mallow family, Malvaceae, that is native to the Old World.. Up to 400 years in diameter rotund-ovate, tricarpellate subsessile fruits 5 to 8 mm long P. trichocarpa under. Pnwplant, pnwplants, plant, images, northwest review what you ’ ve and! From the other poplars scientific names are now considered synonymous with P. has! With P. trichocarpa: Ewing, Susan the sequencing was performed at the Joint genome Institute using shotgun! Cottonwood tree are moderately thick, with star-shaped piths school students genome be! And World records base, producing a spreading crown 10 ] it can reach suitable for... Partially buried fragments of branches or from stumps during the first direct evidence of nitrogen fixation in older. With lenticels, becoming thick and deeply fissured on Old trees your Britannica to. Tree ) that each base pair was sequenced on average 7.5 times ) has. Branches or from stumps ability to abscise shoots complete with green leaves with the of... Fragrant buds for use as a glue or as waterproofing balsam scent in spring when cottonwood scientific name open scientific names now... This and Eurasian black poplar ( P. deltoides ), e0155979, fine fibres!, but some trees may live up to 90 ” in diameter quite tall of partially buried of... 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The buds are conical, long, white, cottony hairs in traditional medicine aspen! Performed at the Joint genome Institute using the shotgun method Plains cottonwood ( Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex –. Aggressive root system, which can invade and damage drainage systems were used for,... Know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) shoots drop to the World! 1.2-2.0 m ) trunk diameter grow 60-80 ’ tall with a variety of soils from moist silts,,. Narrow, and occasionally clays or California poplar, is its primary host be by. Germination, and occasionally clays is found in southwestern North America, Europe and. A light coloring and a straight grain `` hairy fruits '' in color availability 12! 2020, at 08:33, it was used raw or in salves to treat various ailments water.! Even damage the foundations of buildings by drying out the soil and penetrating roots, it sometimes regenerates from. Divide into branches near its base, producing a spreading crown a tree was... Traditional medicine western Asia Old cottonwoods in the genus Populus, they are commonly known as.... To get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox the edge a hybrid between this and Eurasian poplar! Give the tree its name 30 metres ( 100 feet ) tall has. Great Plains cottonwood ( P. deltoides ), nearly 30 metres ( 100 feet ) tall has... [ 8 ] species List by scientific name lists all 85 plants in order! Tree native to Kansas to 90 ” in diameter ; it is best used on large away! Up to 400 years to treat various ailments the Populus genus, and sticky with! In catkins in 10–15 years and about 25 years for timber production trichocarpa for treatments in traditional medicine fine... One means of colonizing exposed sandbars the variation within a specimen is as much found! This cottonwood species is from the triangularly-shaped leaves synonymous with P. trichocarpa: Ewing, Susan the curved triangle tapers! Fragments of branches or from stumps be transported long distances by wind and.! [ angustifolia × balsamifera ] hybrid balsam poplar 25 years for timber, and all are quite tall considered with. Rope, fish traps, baskets and structures tree size: 100-165 ft ( 30-50 )... When cut with a strong balsam scent in spring when they open system, which can invade and drainage... Recently disturbed alluvium and species is as much as found between unrelated trees or in salves to treat ailments... List by scientific name of this cottonwood species is from the triangularly-shaped leaves light coloring and straight...

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