If we can create such policies and ensure political stability, then there will be proper utilization of the resources. Besides rapid deforestation in recent years, the Indian government has cleared 14,000 sq km of forests to accommodate 23,716 industrial projects across India over the three decades. Lack of proper policy making and political instability: Policies in Nepal are either made too late, they are changed a lot or are not made at all. Chandan Kumar Mandal is the environment and migration reporter for The Kathmandu Post, covering labour migration and governance, as well as climate change, natural disasters, and wildlife. “But now, the trend is changing. While 25 percent of the country's total land area is covered by forests and trees, it is still struggling to meet its target of having 33 percent of its total area under forest and tree cover as per its Forest Policy. Due to the steep landscape, these waters flow at great speeds and are a great source of not only drinking water but also electricity and irrigation. Even for small projects, we need help from other countries. “We should not stop development,” said Danuwar. Help to create market and improve commerce: With education, the youth of today are the people who will create commerce in the form of banking, shops and hotels. Hence, activities like mining are severely hampered. The most important resource would be water. Legal provisions that trees felled must be replenished by planting more trees may not be being implemented, experts say and as big projects will be undertaken in the coming years, Nepal is likely to lose a major chunk of forests to them. Market: Small markets in local communities to connections to cities and countries abroad. Infrastructure Development Bank Limited Update: The bank merged into NCC Bank Limited in 2017. It consists of mountains, hills and plains. Drinking water supply and energy: Pipelines for supplying water, taps, wells, pumps etc. “Not only development projects like highways and railways but allotment of forests areas to the landless also costs forest cover, which is not merely space with trees but also part of the existing ecosystem,” said Vijay Singh Danuwar, another environmentalist. Relations among people are also lacking. Lack of technology: Due to lack of technology, we cannot utilize what is available. This is in contrast with past growth that averaged 4.1 percent a year between FY2007 and FY2016. The company has an average annual turnover of NRs. They help in making our lands more cultivable and provide ample energy for our industries. Nepal Infrastructure Bank Limited is a âspecial categoryâ Bank in Nepal, promoted jointly by the Government of Nepal, Financial Institutions and Private Sector. Himalayan Infrastructure Development Company is a private company working in the field of civil engineering and infrastructure development in Nepal for the past 4 years. They can play a constructive role in the development of their communities. Nepal Infrastructure Bank Ltd. Nepalâs first bank to contribute towards economic development of the nation through large-scale investment in the infrastructure projects. Our education system is unbalanced and is setup imitating the systems of more developed nations. Indiaâs Development Assistance to Nepal: Case of the Education Sector SECTION TWO Literature Review Existing literature highlights the role of aid in both the social and economic development of developing countries. With these parameters, Nepal has to start to improve its infrastructure in order to improve urbanization in most of the countryâs regions. Nepal has roughly 130 hospitals/clinics and the ratio of doctors to patients is .21. Another 4,421 trees were felled for the construction of Upper Syange Hydropower in Lamjung. The value chain development of fruit and vegetables project is aimed at raising the incomes of nearly 10,000 smallholder farmers in 12 districts in Nepal through strengthening the value chain of â¦ These clubs can initiate awareness programs, bathroom building programs in rural areas, vaccination and health camps, and mobile library programs among others. In many villages, the only mode of transportation is by foot. In addition, great geographical diversity in such a small place is good for tourism, which is one of the most promising industries in Nepal. Electricity is the main power available in the modern world. As per the Environment and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) report, nearly 770,000 trees will be felled in the first phase, which will see the building of one of the two runways, alone, alarming conservationists. Around eight million people were affected and 250,000 houses damaged. Education. Health: Hospitals, health posts, chemical and drug manufacturers, trained workers etc. INFRASTRUCTURE OF DEVELOPMENT. Government of Nepal (GoN) has promulgated Local Infrastructure Development Policy 2061 to develop local infrastructures needed for rural development. Lack of technical infrastructure: We have severe lack of Electricity/communication and Internet facilities and also the knowledge to use it. Like Nepal, neighbouring India, another developing country desperate to meet its development goals, is also losing its green cover to infrastructure buildings. Due to the rugged nature of our mountain and hilly terrains, conducting development works becomes a challenge. Five-year plans prioritized transportation and communications, but although the results were significant, they remain inadequate. In order to utilize the available resources better, we could do the following: Improve the technological capacity of the country: In order to do that, we may need to seek foreign assistance. “If we get more foreign direct investment, then more land will be converted to businesses. This is the case in many hydropower projects. The waters are regarded as the key strategic natural resources having the potential to be the catalyst for all round development and economic growth of the country. Political instability: Due to political instability, many plans and policies are not implemented. Another 2,722 trees were cut down for Kaveli Corridor Transmission Line and more than 5,200 trees were cleared for Solu Corridor Transmission Line. There are many springs and rivers that originate from the mountains. It also assesses the Investment Lamasl too admits there are challenges in maintaining forest cover. Nearly 17 percent of the Amazonian rainforest has been destroyed over the past 50 years. buildings, roads, power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. are physical infrastructures. Other sources of energy like gas etc. While the data for the last fiscal year 2019-20 is not available, the Ministry of Forests and Environment has given nearly 300 hectares of forests for development projects this fiscal year, according spokesman Prakash Lamsal. Sprawling over an area of 8045.79 hectares, the proposed airport would require felling of 2.4 million trees of all sizes. Infrastructure is considered as the pillar of development. Kathmandu, August 18. “Large-scale commercial agriculture [primarily cattle ranching and cultivation of soya bean and oil palm] accounted for 40 percent of tropical deforestation between 2000 and 2010, and local subsistence agriculture for another 33 percent,” reads the FAO report. Hence, our geographical feature has been a boon. Forests still occupy about 30 percent of the world’s land area, but they are disappearing at an alarming rate, posing threats to lives, livelihoods, environmental services like drinking water, clean air and timber as well as biodiversity. It will deliberate on issues that shape incentives for investment and enable the private sector to partner for sustainable prosperity. Introduction to Infrastructure of Development. Mega-projects like the proposed Nijgadh International Airport have been at the centre of controversy for environmental degradation and catastrophe it would be unleashing with its construction. Minerals, water, soil, wind, forests etc. Nepal Infrastructure Bank Limited (NIFRA) is established as a National Level Infrastructure Development Bank with the focused objective of accelerating the development of infrastructure of the nation. The service sector accounted for 57 percent of the growth, and the agriculture sector contributed an additional 24 percent. Due to the geographical features of the country which includes a substantial portion of hills and mountains, there are a lot of sources of water. The company has grown rapidly since its establishment in October 2014. Natural resources are materials or substances occurring in nature which can be exploited for economic gain. Infrastructure refers to essential factors needed for development like education, health facilities, transport, communication, etc. Nepal has a high potential of hydroelectricity because there are quite many rivers flowing sâ¦ Finally, compounding the lack of general infrastructure development is a history of abject poverty and economic underdevelopment. In the absence of good communication network, developmental works cannot run smoothly. 6. “If we can implement this provision effectively and also do regeneration and plantation, which is the government’s plan, on barren and degraded lands, then we can achieve the target and preserve existing forests,” Lamsal said. “For example, an 8,000 hectare forest area is estimated to be cleared for Nijgadh airport at a time when the world is talking of climate crisis and reforestation.”. “Also, there are active community forest user groups helping protect forest areas across the country.”. But economic growth in a developing country means big infrastructure projects for which land is needed and that is scarce in a geographically small country like Nepal. Their role in development can be: Work face to face with organizations who are involved in community development programs: Most of the youth today have gained education and are morally aware of the changes required in society. The pressure on forests is because of the country’s development ambitions for mega-projects.”. Kathmandu, 9 September 2019 â A team of experts from the Government of Nepal, development partners and Japanâs energy sector will be meeting in Kathmandu to promote resilient infrastructure in Nepal in the context of the countryâs vulnerabilities to natural disasters. As a conscious citizen, there is a significant role we can play for the development of infrastructures in the country. Types Infrastructure development can involve any type of infrastructure including transportation , energy, water , digital , social and green infrastructure. Energy: Electricity through hydropower, solar, wind, or fossil fuels (diesel powered generators). Much of rural Nepal is located in hilly or mountainous regions. The Bank obtained the operating license from Nepal Rastra Bank (Central Bank) on February 11 2019 (2075/10/28 B.S.) Optimum utilization of means and resources 3. This creates a bad environment for investors. The Forest Policy also has the goal of maintaining forest cover at 45 percent of the country’s total land area. More than 11,000 trees were felled for implementing two hydropower projects in Sankhuwasabha—the 900-megawatt Arun III project and 220-KV Koshi corridor transmission line. As per the government’s survey, the country has an estimated more than 2.5 billion trees of 443 species belonging to 239 genera and 99 families. âNRN Infrastructure and Development Limited (NRNIDL) was registered in Kathmandu under the Company Act 2063,â in Nepal (September 2012) with the main motive of collective investment in hydropower sector in initial phase meanwhile exploring other investment avenues of â¦ Higher remittance inflows and a surge in tourist arrivals translated into higher growth in retail trade, real estate, traâ¦ As per the statistics of the Ministry of Forests and Environment, 150,985 trees were felled, and 577.19 ha forest was cleared for a total of 64 projects in 2018-19, the latest fiscal year for which official data is available, most of them to hydropower projects. That year, 88,166 trees were cut down for the underground petroleum transmission line from India to Amlekhganj. “I do not know whether we are progressing or regressing,” said Budhathoki. ©Copyright 2014 - 2020 Khulla Kitab Edutech Pvt. The sense of ownership and pride cultivated. This gives rise to corruption which further decelerates growth. Like Nepal, neighbouring India, another developing country desperate to meet its development goals, is also losing its green cover to infrastructure buildings. Foreign trade can be improved so that the markets exist not only inside the country, but even outside of it. Forest occupies a total of 5.96 million hectares or 40.36 percent of the country’s total area while shrubland, with shrubs and small trees, covers 0.65 million hectares or 4.38 percent of the total land mass, according to State of Nepal’s Forests, a nationwide forest resource assessment by the Forest Research and Training Centre of the Ministry of Forests and Environment. Nepal is endowed with abundant water resources from the availability point of view. Danuwar also raises questions over the credibility of the data on nationwide forest coverage. But he stresses the need for regeneration of forest cover effectively. âNRN Infrastructure and Development Limited (NRNIDL) was registered in Kathmandu under the Company Act 2063,â in Nepal (September 2012) with the main motive of collective investment in hydropower sector in initial phase meanwhile exploring other investment avenues of â¦ ... Nepal is a mountainous country and has great geographical diversity. But Nepal’s robust green cover is likely to take a toll with its rising development aspirations and construction of new infrastructure projects clearing forest areas, according to environmentalists. The workshop on Enhancing Climate/Disaster-Resilient Renewable Energy Distributed Power System in Nepal is â¦ In Nepal, due to the rugged terrain the first shift of freight transport was naturally to a ropeway in 1922. Lack of market: The inability of the government to provide enough market for the available resources also results in its wastage. Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transport (MoPIT) was established in 2000 in order to bring important infrastructural development under the umbrella of a single Ministry. Ministry of Local Development is the central governmnent Agency to take care of this business of liaisoning. The social, cultural and national feeling becomes stronger from the local level. The prime objective of the bank is to foster economic development by investing in infrastructure and offering finance and allied services to the infrastructure projects. There are many natural resources in Nepal. He doubts that there is actually 44.74 percent of forest coverage on the ground as the data was based on satellite images and verification on the ground has not been effective. 2. This can be used to run mills as well. Clear vision: Good policies with a long term vision are the keys to sustained growth. Due to political instability, even small projects passed during one regime are not allowed to be run by another regime. successful in increasing the country's green cover, occupy about 30 percent of the world’s land area, statistics of the Ministry of Forests and Environment, cut down for Kaveli Corridor Transmission Line, environmental degradation and catastrophe it would be unleashing, proposed airport would require felling of 2.4 million trees of all sizes, 33 percent of its total area under forest and tree cover, cleared 14,000 sq km of forests to accommodate 23,716 industrial projects, legal provisions that make it mandatory for project developers, goal of maintaining forest cover at 45 percent, Nepal’s infrastructure development aspirations build pressure on its existing green cover, Transitional justice is once again being used as a tool for political one-upmanship, conflict victims say, One in eight individuals exposed to virus until September, seroprevalence survey shows, A birthday cake, a bitter shouting match and a sour note at the end. Trained teachers and. It would be better to focus on the conditions in Nepal, and create a trained workforce who can act in the interests of the nation. Development pace will be faster. In Nepal too there will be more industries, economic zones, new industrial corridors and cities, according to Budhathoki. Development works will last long. Benefits reach directly to the stakeholders. NIFRA got an operating license from Nepal Rastra Bank on 28th of Magh 2075 and started its commercial operation from the 22nd of Falgun 2075. The aim of this project has been to improve Nepalese meteorological expertise and operational preparedness for natural disasters. Industrialization makes the track o development more solid and â¦ It is the 1st Infrastructure Bank of Nepal and has the mission to accelerate investments for the development of infrastructure in Nepal. Young people are a key part of a country’s development. Means of communication: Television, radio, internet etc. The infrastructure of Nepal was impacted by an earthquake that occurred in 2015. Over time, social development, particularly development of human capital, has become an important agenda for aid giving nations. The highest area of forests—156.64 ha—was cleared for Hongshi Cement limestone mining in 2018-19, according to Forest Ministry data. We do not have the necessary tools and machinery. On the one hand, efficient human resource could not be developed adequately in Nepal, in the other a few of the existing skilled human resources is moving to foreign countries. Our governments do not stand long enough to see their policies through. Infrastructure development is the construction and improvement of foundational services with the goal of sparking economic growth and improvements in quality of life. Likewise, for tourism-related business and other businesses also forest land will be utilised since there is not much private land,” he said. Nepal is a mountainous country and has great geographical diversity. Economic growth in Nepal remained robust for the third year in a row, reaching 7.1 percent in FY2019. In 2010, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) launched a cooperation project (FNEP), financed by the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) of Nepal. The second shift came in 1928 in the form of a railway line in Janakpur. The world lost more than one football field of forest every second in 2017, The Guardian reported in 2018, analysing data from a global satellite survey. Decades of conservation efforts, particularly on community forests, have been highly successful in increasing the country's green cover to nearly 45 percent but now this success is clashing with the country's development goals. But in countries like Nepal, which is still in its early phase of infrastructure development, the driver behind forest loss would be building infrastructures for which forest areas will be cleared, say Nepali environmentalists. It consists of mountains, hills and plains. Due to the rapid nature of flowing water, they can easily be converted into sources of electricity. Mindful of forests being lost to development, there are legal provisions that make it mandatory for project developers to compensate for the loss by planting trees ten times those felled. Cost effectiveness and project efficiency ensured. Natural resources in our country are not utilized properly for the following reasons: Many places are not yet accessible by road. 5. The lack of education: Being one of the infrastructures of development, the lack of quality education for the people means that there is in turn a lack of skilled manpower in the country. According to Budhathoki, former country representative for IUCN Nepal and former National Planning Commission member, Nepal has not lost a major chunk of the forest in the last two to three decades except a little here and there. National development is not possible without the development of efficient and skillful human resource . With an aim to accelerate the development of infrastructure in the nation, Nepal Infrastructure Bank (NIB) has started to make investments in projects. The year 1990 BS is considered as a landmark in education in Nepal, with the establishment of the SLC Board. Budhathoki, the former planning commission member, takes an even longer view about economic growth at the cost of the environment. 4. Promoted by visionary bankers, engineers, businessmen and other reputed personalities, Infrastructure Development Bank Limited is licensed as a âBâ category Financial Institution by Nepal Rastra Bank under the Banks and Financial Institution Act. “In the past forests were cleared for agricultural land and pasture and dependence on firewood and timber saw stress on forest areas,” Prabhu Budhathoki, an environmentalist, told the Post. The following are the impacts of people participation: 1. Here are 20 development projects that will be watched closely in the year 2020. The infrastructures of development and their related aspects are listed below: Education : Educational institutions like schools, colleges, universities, vocational training centers etc. Infrastructures are the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g. In the past 25 years, the green cover has shrunk by 1.3 million sq km—an area bigger than the size of South Africa, shows the World Bank study. Roads, bridges, canals, drains, sewerage, buildings, electricity, communication, etc. “When the country is in the midst of development projects, we see a growing demand for forest area for making roads, railway tracks and hydropower, leaving a challenge for maintaining the forest cover,” Lamsal said. According to the FAO’ State of the World Forest Report 2020, agricultural expansion continues to be the main driver of deforestation and forest degradation and the associated loss of forest biodiversity. Development is concerned with health, education, acquisition of civil rights, availability of employment, the right to dignify life, gender equality, community welfare, and decentralised administration. While there is some basic health infrastructure in place, most of it is concentrated in the cities. Load shedding is also a big factor of hindering development. Hence, with the constant changes happening, people look for short term gains. Nepal - Infrastructure, power, and communications In post-1950s Nepal, planners and foreign aid donors viewed the creation of infrastructure as vital to the success of the country's economic development. “In the coming years, it looks like we will be losing a significant area of forests to highways, railway routes and a proposed airport,” said Budhathoki. Ltd. INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING, PEACE AND CO-OPERATION, Introduction to Infrastructure of Development. But the threat is not over yet. The establishment of industry announces the many job opportunity to the people which increase the development of the Nepalese and the development of Nepalese leads the development of Nepal. 7. The National Planning Commission (NPC) is the apex advisory body of the Government of Nepal for formulating a national vision, periodic plans and policies for development. It is headed by the Right Honorable Prime Minister. “Forest cover must have shrunk in the last few years already from the national record of 44.74 percent of total area.”. are amply available in the country. “No one knows the number of trees planted and when and where they were planted,” he said. While the world is heavily counting on forests in its fight against the climate crisis, deforestation has emerged as one of the leading environmental challenges. Improve manpower: This may relate to educating our existing workforce and providing trainings to them. It is used in all fields ranging from household to the operation of the industries and heavy constructions. The main aim of organization is to harmonize the policies and bring efficiencies and effectiveness in the provision of infrastructural services. Transport : Roads, airports, railway lines, stations and foot trails etc. Geographical constraints. Kathmandu-Tarai Expressway: Construction work of Kathmandu-Tarai Expressway has gained momentum after Nepal Army took over this national pride project popularly known as âFast Trackâ in April 14, 201. More than 10,000 trees were cleared for Pathibhara Darshan Cable Car in Taplejung. But the government rules of compensatory plantation have not been implemented effectively, according to Danuwar. Forests being denuded is the case the world over. There are various factors in the slow progress of development in our country: Topographical constraints: Even if the geographical setting of the country makes it rich in resources, it also makes access to them difficult. They can support and convince community members on the advantages of various development programs and also in programs aimed to change the attitudes of the people in the community. Similarly, means of communication are needed for passing news, views and notices. 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