The task of Soviet artists was to create visualisations of the “New Soviet Man” -- the idealized icon of humanity living under socialism. This was either because they were "decadent", unintelligible to the proletariat, or counter-revolutionary. Today, arguably the only countries still focused on these aesthetic principles are North Korea, Laos, and to some extent Vietnam. In Britain examples of social realism can be found in the eighteenth century, for example in the work of William Hogarth, but it became particularly widespread in the nineteenth century. Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of glasnost and perestroika facilitated an explosion of interest in alternative art styles in the late 1980s, but socialist realism remained in limited force as the official state art style until as late as 1991. Eisler combines features of revolutionary songs with varied expression.  Traditionalists believed in the importance of realistic representations of everyday life. In the early 1930s, Soviet filmmakers applied socialist realism in their work. The fifteen-year period of constant reformation of the country's largest art institute came to an end. In: Большая российская энциклопедия, 2015, pp. For that period of history Socialist Realism was the sole criterion for measuring literary works. Literatūra ir menas [Literature and Art] (in Lithuanian) (Vilnius: Lithuanian Creative Unions Weekly), R. H. Stacy, Russian Literary Criticism p191. After the death of Stalin in 1953, he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev who harbored less draconian state controls and openly condemned Stalin's artistic demands in 1957 with his "Secret Speech", and thus began a reversal in policy known as "Khrushchev's Thaw." Realism had been born out of an inherent social defiance of institutionalized traditions of painting, where support for history and genre painting was implemented by state-sponsored art academies. , Alexander Bogdanov argued that the radical reformation of society to communist principles meant little if any bourgeois art would prove useful; some of his more radical followers advocated the destruction of libraries and museums. A great number of landscapes, portraits, and genre paintings exhibited at the time pursued purely technical purposes and were thus ostensibly free from any ideology. ", Common images used in socialist realism were flowers, sunlight, the body, youth, flight, industry, and new technology. to have been the first socialist-realist novel. Museum of Modern Art, 2009. He excelled in landscapes and social realism, and held many exhibitions. Notable films include Chapaev, which shows the role of the people in the history-making process. Socialist Realism Art Movement as an Ideological Tool Dramatic changes on the art scene that mark the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century side-lined Realism to the back of the artistic interests, but after the World Wars Realism came back with a vengeance. "Echoes of Socialist Realism in Post-Soviet Art", Alekna, Romas (24 May 1975). Todd, James G. "Social Realism". It was the repeated renewal of the very conception of realism that made this style dominate Russian art throughout its history. Genre painting was also approached in a similar way. The Social Realist political movement and artistic explorations flourished primarily during the 1920s and 1930s, a time of global economic depression, heightened racial conflict, the rise of fascist regimes internationally, and great optimism after both the Mexican and Russian revolutions. While the movement's characteristics vary from nation to nation, it almost always utilizes a form of descriptive … Socialist realism was also applied to Hindi films of the 1940s and 1950s. " He concluded that art had a direct effect on the human organism and under the right circumstances that effect could be positive. Р.46-53. After Stalin's death in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev began to condemn the previous regime's practice of excessive restrictions. , Western cultures often do not look at socialist realism positively. It was thought by Lenin that the non-representative forms of art were not understood by the proletariat and could therefore not be used by the state for propaganda. Social Realism, trend in American art originating in about 1930 and referring in its narrow sense to paintings treating themes of social protest in a naturalistic or quasi-expressionist manner. Historian Susan Reid has argued that the cult of personality around male Soviet leaders created an entire atmosphere of patriarchy in Socialist Realist art, where both male and female workers often looked up to the “father” icon of Lenin and Stalin. Heroes of the time – young scientists, workers, civil engineers, physicians, etc. The novels of Louis Aragon, such as The Real World, depict the working class as a rising force of the nation. In the collection of poems A Knife in the Heart Again, Aragon criticizes the penetration of American imperialism into Europe. Georgi Plekhanov, a Marxist theoretician, states that art is useful if it serves society: "There can be no doubt that art acquired a social significance only in so far as it depicts, evokes, or conveys actions, emotions and events that are of significance to society.". Socialist Realism is the officially sanctioned style of art that dominated Soviet painting for 50 years from the early 1930s. 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