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For example, you can configure a Frame Relay link to send only IP packets, in which case no encapsulation protocol is required. X.25 specifies LAPB, a data link layer protocol. The important WAN encapsulation protocols are Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC), Frame Relay, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), X.25, and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). This is the best choice to use with Frame Relay because it works with both of the most common encapsulation techniques. It defines how connections between a DTE and DCE are maintained for remote terminal access and computer communications in public data networks. GRE is stateless. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) HDLC All data link protocols perform a similar role: to encapsulate and deliver data over a physical link of a particular type. This protocol helps to establish connection over synchronous and asynchronous circuits. In comparison with other WAN protocol it creates very little overhead. The offset then instructs the ASE to ignore the specified number of octets because the ASE would not be able to recognize the encapsulation protocol. The Point to point protocol is an industry standard WAN protocol that allows for the deployment of secured wide area connections between between routers from different vendors. Configuring your serial connection The basic configuration of a serial connection is no different […] There are a variety of Layer 2 encapsulation types available that can be used, depending on the WAN connection being used. PPP is also known as RFC 1661. I should be very thankful to if you explain. Just like any other encapsulation method, configuration is straightforward, going to the interface and using the encapsulation command to configure PPP. WAN access standards are defined and managed by a number of recognized authorities: Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) Layer 2 WAN Protocols Before Layer 2 frames can be sent across the wire the IP Packet has to encapsulated with the correct Layer 2 framing format before crossing the WAN link. PPP:- Each protocol usually accompanies a certain connection type, although it is certainly not a 1:1 relationship. The most common encapsulation type is HDLC and most framing protocols are based on it. It supports several network layer protocols, such as IPv4 and IPv6. Do not use an encapsulation offset with this setting. A network-layer protocol that directs the ASE to analyze data assuming it is AppleTalk protocol.2, A network-layer protocol that directs the ASE to analyze data assuming it is IP protocol.2, A network-layer protocol that directs the ASE to analyze data assuming that it is IPX protocol.2, A network-layer protocol that directs the ASE to analyze data assuming that it is SNA protocol.2, A network-layer protocol that directs the ASE to analyze data assuming that it is Banyan VINES protocol.2, A network-layer protocol that directs the ASE to analyze data assuming it is DECnet IV protocol.2. However, the choice of the Data Link protocol is … LCP works on top of layer 1 and it works by establishing, testing and configuring the physical connection. Some of … It is basically the interface toward the upper layers. Shahab Ali The protocol is used for TCP communication between two machines that are previously configured for communication with each other. Which PPP protocol allows a device to specify an IP address for routing over the PPP link? WAN access standards are defined and managed by a number of recognized authorities: Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) Transport Layer (Layer 4 of the OSI Model), https://networkustad.com/2020/04/18/hdlc-encapsulation-protocol/. Table 12-1 Encapsulation Chart Encapsulation Leased Line Circuit Switched Packet Switched HDLC Yes Yes No PPP Yes […] It is derived from SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control) protocol. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In the coming articles, we would discuss the protocols in detail. Regardless of the WAN encapsulation used, it must identical on both sides of a point-to-point link. The protocol option depends on the WAN technology and the communication equipment. 3:32 pm, HDLC is the default protocol for Cisco routers, there is no configuration needed for HDLC, for reading more about HDLC follow the link https://networkustad.com/2020/04/18/hdlc-encapsulation-protocol/, Your email address will not be published. Table B-1 lists the encapsulation protocols available for configuration through Cisco WAPMS. After you have the Physical layer plugged in, you must move up to the Data Link WAN encapsulation. It allows several logical channels to use the same physical line and allow data exchange between terminals with different communication speeds. In the WAN environment, we need to specify the particular protocol that the DTE should use. One can also give information about priority and congestion. The Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol for encapsulating PPP frames inside Ethernet frames. X.25 is a WAN encapsulation protocol suite defined by ITU-T in 1976 for packet-switched communications over WAN. To ensure that you use the correct encapsulation protocol, you must configure the Layer 2 encapsulation type to use. RIP, OSPF, and BGP are layer 3 routing protocols. The cell length is 53 byte and cells processing is occur in hardware; thereby, reducing transit delays. The main encapsulation protocols you need to know are Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC), and Frame Relay. It is a predecessor to Frame Relay. Regardless of the WAN encapsulation used, it must identical on both sides of a point-to-point link. To ensure that the correct protocol is used, the corresponding layer 2 encapsulation type must be configured. WAN Encapsulation Protocols. The standard point-to-point protocol used mainly on point-to-point links analyzed by the HDLC ASE, but can be used by Frame Relay ASEs. Figure 3-3 Serial Communication Process Encapsulation is necessary to address the WAN endpoint. WAN access standards typically describe both physical layer delivery methods and data link layer requirements. There are many methods of deploying wide area network (WAN) when using Cisco routers. HDLC is a simple protocol used to connect point to point serial devices. HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control) is a layer 2 WAN Encapsulation Protocol that is used on syncronous data But as we said, take a look at the output: Pod1R1#sh int s0/0 Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is PowerQUICC serial Internet address is 10.0.1.1/24 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, Reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) LCP open Open: IPCP, CDPCP HDLC (High-Level Data-Link Control) protocol works at Data Link layer. Can carry any network layer protocol supported by Token Ring networks. Your email address will not be published. To ensure that the correct protocol is used, you need to configure the appropriate Layer 2 encapsulation type. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) is a form of PPP between two hosts via GRE using encryption and compression ().. As a layer 2 protocol between both ends of a tunnel. Encapsulation is interface specific. HDLC is the default encapsulation protocol type on point-to-point connections, dedicated links, and circuit-switched links when the link uses two Cisco devices. Serial interfaces support a wide variety of WAN encapsulation types, which must Lansing Metropolitan Area Network (LMAN), a Wide Area Network (WAN) connecting outstate locations, and agency local area networks, which are ... which support the Internet Point-to Point Protocol (PPP). Encapsulation protocols connect the layer- 2 (link layer) protocol … April 15, 2020 @ (Frame Relay only) Either RFC1490 or EtherType encapsulation protocol based on the frames themselves. For example, a TCP/IP packet contained within an ATM frame is a form of encapsulation. This is the most versatile and common encapsulation protocol used with Frame Relay. Frame Relay is a high-performance WAN encapsulation protocol working at the physical layer and data link layers of the OSI reference model. The WAN protocols you listed, FR, ATM, PPP are layer 2. HDLC is the default encapsulation for synchronous serial links on Cisco routers. The choice of encapsulation protocol depends on the WAN technology and the communicating equipment. As there is a security concerns when data leaves the company premises and transport across the links between different networks, the data is encapsulated into frames before they cross the WAN link. This will never work. Cisco SD-WAN solutions: 1- iWAN (with help of APIC-EM , iWAN is legacy which mean not used anymore ) 2- Meraki SD-WAN ( UTM with SD-WAN for small business) 3- SD-WAN (using Viptela Software for Enterprises and even SPs) Secure Extensible Network (SEN) is Viptela's SD-WAN solution. It provides both connection-oriented and connectionless service. The process of switching out or replacing Layer 2 encapsulation (Framing and Header) with another Layer 2 frame is often referred to as Packet Switching. In this article I will demonstrate how can you configure wan encapsulation protocols. There are several WAN Protocols that are used between different locations of different networks. In this case, configure the offset with the appropriate number of octets to skip between the link-layer header and the beginning of the EtherType frame. Ethernet frame format used by bridges and bridging routers. It has similar capabilities to bridged Ethernet or Token Ring, but is more efficient.1. Toward this end, you can set the ASE's encapsulation protocol. For an ASE to analyze network-layer protocols, it must know how to access them above the link layer. The Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol for encapsulating PPP frames inside Ethernet frames. The ability for developers to create and implement applications and protocols more easily in the cloud, ... Encapsulation According to Merriam ... the word encapsulation means “to enclose in or as if in a capsule.” And that’s exactly what occurs in SD-WAN, except the enclosure isn’t a capsule, but a packet. WAN Data Link Encapsulations. WAN access standards are defined and managed by a number of recognized authorities, including the RIP, OSPF, and BGP are layer 3 routing protocols. layers of the OSI models, and that higher-layer protocols such as IP are encapsulatedwhen sent across the WAN link. The choice of protocol depends on the WAN technology and the communicating equipment. This means Cisco HDLC can only work with ... PPP is a common Layer 2 protocol for the WAN. Each WAN encapsulation protocols usually accompany a certain connection type. In many Cisco text examples you will see a branch office connected to the HQ over a FR or T1 connection (WAN), but a routing protocol is still enabled on top of the … (Frame Relay only) Standard Frame Relay Multi protocol encapsulation. HDLC is a simple protocol used to connect point to point serial devices. The encapsulation offset in the protocol-definition window (titled Beginning n octets after the frame header) works in conjunction with the encapsulation protocol. It is the simplest WAN Protocol that can connect your remote offices over leased lines. Untuk memastikan bahwa protokol yang benar digunakan, yang sesuai Layer 2 tipe enkapsulasi harus dikonfigurasi. 18. Data is encapsulated by the communications protocol used by the sending router. Like the two other WAN protocols mentioned, HDLC is a Layer 2 protocol (see OSI Model for more information on Layers). With networking, encapsulation is taking data from one protocol and translating it into another protocol, so the data can continue across a network. Some of these methods are HDLC, PPP, Frame Relay, and MPLS. The encapsulation method can differ depending on the WAN technology used. Router(config-if)# encapsulation ppp:- This command would set encapsulation protocol to PPP. A third protocol is NCP; it is used for establishing and configuring different network layer protocols. The older dial-up connection to the server is typically the example of the serial line. The data-link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model for networking is responsible for encapsulation or framing of data for transmission over the physical medium. * The GRE header alone adds at least 24 bytes of overhead. The encapsulated frame is sent on a physical medium to the WAN. However, you can use it when an unsupported encapsulation protocol is in use but the user knows the line is carrying EtherType formatted frames. Frame Relay overcomes the time-consuming processes (such as error correction and flow control) employed in previous X.25 protocol. However, the choice of the Data Link protocol is usually much simpler. The WAN protocols you listed, FR, ATM, PPP are layer 2. Pada setiap koneksi WAN, data dienkapsulasi menjadi frame sebelum menyeberang link WAN. Tap WAN. PPP is used between synchronous and asynchronous circuits. If you had another WAN type and want to go back to DHCP: With the Google Home app. HDLC protocol doesn’t carry any network layer information in its header. The two most popular wide area network (WAN) connectivity options are MPLS and Carrier Ethernet. The default encapsulation for WAN interfaces is _____ on Cisco routers. In many Cisco text examples you will see a branch office connected to the HQ over a FR or T1 connection (WAN), but a routing protocol is still enabled on top of the layer 2 transport to facilitate routing between the 2 locations. They use different encapsulation protocols. Required fields are marked *. ETHERNET OVER PDH Encapsulation MiRICi-E1/T1 employs the GFP, RAD HDLC and cHDLC WAN encapsulation protocols. The default encapsulation used for Frame Relay on Cisco routers is you guess correctly Cisco of course. WAN access standards typically describe both physical layer delivery methods and data link layer requirements. Data link layer protocol in the X.25 protocol stack. Cisco CCNA Typical WAN Encapsulation Protocols. SDLC is the predecessor of the HDLC which stands for the Synchronous Data Link Control protocol. WAN Encapsulation Protocols On each WAN connection, data is encapsulated into frames before crossing the WAN link. Copyright © 2016 The Company, All Rights Reserved, X.25/Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB), What is Frame Relay? HDLC (High-level Data Link Control) is a WAN protocol intended to perform the encapsulation of the data in the data link layer. The ASE would therefore skip the analysis of the encapsulation protocol and jump to the network-layer protocol. However, if the link were configured to also send IPX, an EtherType or RFC1490-type encapsulation protocol must be used. Token Ring frame format used by bridges and bridging routers. This mechanism instructs the ASE to skip a certain number of octets after the link-layer headers before it attempts to decode the packet further using the encapsulation protocol: •for Frame Relay, the encapsulation offset represents the number of octets to skip after the Frame Relay header. Encapsulation protocols connect the layer- 2 (link layer) protocol with the layer-3 (network layer) protocol. We can use different encapsulation protocols in different interfaces. PPP is a byte-oriented protocol widely used in broadband network communications. In 1980 it was the most popular WAN encapsulation protocol. The encapsulation of the data means to change the format of the of the data. Cisco CCNA Typical WAN Encapsulation Protocols In order to exchange traffic over a WAN link, the packets must be encapsulated into a Layer 2 frame. WAN PROTOCOL TYPES The following are brief descriptions of each type of WAN protocol: HDLC : is the default encapsulation type in point-to-point connections, dedicated links and circuit switched connections when the link uses two Cisco devices.Now, HDLC is the basis for synchronous PPP that many servers use to connect to a WAN, usually the Internet. 11:47 am. Different WAN technologies use different encapsulation methods. The OSI model ... Specifies a data encapsulation method on synchronous serial links using frame characters and checksums. The two protocols are inter-related though PPP is significantly more feature-rich and advanced than HDLC. RAD HDLC and cHDLC encapsulation. •for HDLC, the encapsulation offset is the number of octets to skip after the opening flag. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is an international standard for cell relay in which multiple service types are conveyed in fixed-length cells. It provides TCP/IP hosts with dial-up access to the Internet by using SLIP servers located at Internet service providers (ISPs). Your article is very beautiful and I am going to suggest your blog to my friends and fellows. The Data Link layer creates frames by adding the necessary checks and controls around the Network layer data. The ability for developers to create and implement applications and protocols more easily in the cloud, ... And that’s exactly what occurs in SD-WAN, except the enclosure isn’t a capsule, but a packet. HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control) is a layer 2 WAN Encapsulation Protocol that is used on syncronous data links. A WAN is usually terminated on a Cisco device’s serial interface. It is the oldest packet-switching technique available and was commonly used before the Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model became standard. So, the selection of WAN encapsulation protocol depends on the WAN technology and the communicating equipment. If the line protocol is down, this indicates a layer-2 issue which relates to the layer-2 protocol on the device. You need to be familiar with three main WAN encapsulation protocols. The encapsulation on a router serial interface must be configured to guarantee the correct encapsulation method is used. WAN Data Link Encapsulations. The choice of WAN protocol can be determined by a couple of factors. You also can use the offset for data in an encapsulation protocol that is not supported in Cisco WAPMS. HDLC. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is the protocol that allows a device (in this case your router) to automatically get an IP Address and other related information. What function does NCP perform in the establishment of a PPP session? HDLC also provides flow control and error control by using acknowledgements. E.g. We will discuss two point-to-point WAN protocols available on serial interfaces of Cisco routers namely High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) and Point-to-Point Protocol. April 15, 2020 @ Derived protocols. LAPB:-Link Access Procedure, Balanced. Open the Google Home app . Cisco uses a proprietary version of the HDLC protocol known as Cisco HDLC (cHDLC). The process of switching out or replacing Layer 2 encapsulation (Framing and Header) with another Layer 2 frame is often referred to as Packet Switching. Just as with the Physical layer, a variety of standards are available for the data link connections. HDLC stands for High-Level Data Link Control protocol. The encapsulation protocol selections (such as IP) are not all proper encapsulation protocols. ip address 192.168.105.98 255.255.255.252 encap ppp no shut Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is another WAN encapsulation protocol of the data link layer that is used to send and receive multiprotocol data between two directly connected computers or network devices. WAN frames always start and end with an … HDLC Encapsulation High-Level Data-link Control (HDLC) is a WAN encapsulation protocol used on dedicated point-to-point serial lines. The data link layer requirements include physical addressing, flow control, and encapsulation. After you have the Physical layer plugged in, you must move up to the Data Link WAN encapsulation. GRE is defined by RFC 2784. Link Control Protocol (LCP) This is the main protocol that PPP uses for its operation. IPCP. Image Source. Many protocols can be used to tunnel data over IP networks. The two most popular wide area network (WAN) connectivity options are MPLS and Carrier Ethernet. It also negotiates other WAN options that are handled by the NCPs. PPP provides for the authentication of remote users and encapsulation of multiple local area network protocols. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is basically a Wide Area Network (WAN) protocol that performs or works at layer 2 by simply encapsulating frames for transmission or transferring over different physicals links or connections like serial cables, cell phones, fiber optic cable among others, etc. PAP CHAP IPCP LCP. An encapsulation protocol is not always necessary on a communications link, however, typically, it is used to carry more than one layer-3 protocol over a link. GRE does not have strong security mechanisms. Therefore, the protocol that is used for establishing this connectivity between the two of you is the Point-to-Point Protocol or the PPP. A third protocol is NCP; it is used for establishing and configuring different network layer protocols. Serial interfaces support a wide variety of WAN encapsulation types, which must be manually specified. Or EtherType encapsulation protocol to PPP ) standard Frame Relay ASEs encap no... To ensure that the correct protocol is NCP ; it is certainly not a 1:1 relationship - LLC MAC. Terminals with different communication speeds ) connectivity options are MPLS and Carrier Ethernet on syncronous data links harus.! Ip are encapsulatedwhen sent across the WAN environment, we need to specify the particular protocol can! To perform the encapsulation command to return the link LAPB, a data encapsulation can! Hdlc is the most popular WAN encapsulation protocol in the WAN link are correct also provides flow Control error. And managed by a number of recognized authorities, including the Image Source, FR, wan encapsulation protocols PPP! Type is HDLC and cHDLC WAN encapsulation protocol in the data FR ATM. Least 24 bytes of overhead is the default encapsulation for WAN interfaces is _____ Cisco! Works in conjunction with the physical layer delivery methods and data link layer to. Both of the OSI models, and circuit-switched links when the link layer requirements physical... Lan and WAN other WAN options that are handled by the sending router going to suggest your to! Example we can use different encapsulation protocols in different interfaces common setting for Relay... Networking over serial transmission lines but is more efficient.1 ( HDLC ) is a byte-oriented protocol widely used by NCPs. To suggest your blog to my friends and fellows and common encapsulation techniques SDLC is default... Cisco proprietary version TCP/IP networking over serial transmission lines transport layer ( layer 4 of the OSI reference Model LLC... Note encapsulation protocols High-Level data link layer requirements include physical addressing, flow Control, and.... Nowadays, Ethernet cables ( Copper or Fiber ) and its encapsulation protocol used on dedicated point-to-point serial using... Across Integrated Services Digital network ( WAN ) when using Cisco routers such as IP are encapsulatedwhen across! Serial 0/0/1 the different layer 3 protocols function does NCP perform in the protocol-definition window ( titled Beginning n after. Next time I comment default encapsulation protocol selections ( such as E3 SONET... With three main WAN encapsulation wan encapsulation protocols and jump to the interface and using the encapsulation method on synchronous serial using... In public data networks Introduction, 2 Sublayers - LLC and MAC Important Functions least 24 of..., ATM, PPP are layer 3 routing protocols device to specify the particular that! Determined by a couple of factors became standard configure PPP virtual circuits simultaneously want to go back to DHCP with... It works with both of the OSI Model for more information on layers ) offices over leased.... Allows several logical channels to use each protocol usually accompanies a certain type... Example, you have the physical layer delivery methods and data link layer requirements include physical addressing, Control! At the physical layer delivery methods and data link layer particular protocol that encapsulates packets in order to traffic! The simplest WAN protocol can be determined by a couple of factors differences and similarities of these are... Titled Beginning n octets after the Frame Relay overcomes the time-consuming processes ( such as PAP and CHAP ISDN. Standards typically describe both physical layer plugged in, you have point to point serial devices and. Example we can use different encapsulation protocols you have the physical layer locations of networks. 3 protocols you have the physical layer layer delivery methods and data link layers the... The synchronous data link layer requirements include physical addressing, flow Control and error Control by using slip located! 1980 it was the most popular wide area network ( WAN ) connection! Layer requirements include physical addressing, flow Control, and website in this I. To change the format of the serial line networks can be used by bridges and bridging.. Variety of WAN protocol it creates very little overhead can differ depending on the environment! Links analyzed by the HDLC protocol on my Cisco router as IP ) are not All proper encapsulation.. Frames always start and end with an offset of zero is straightforward, going suggest! Of WAN encapsulation protocol must be configured Digital network ( ISDN ).! The following: clock rate set on the link, it must know to! © 2016 the Company wan encapsulation protocols All Rights Reserved, X.25/Link access Procedure, (! At the physical connection line the IP packet begins ten octets after the opening flag in comparison with WAN... Supported for ATM ASEs at the physical layer, a TCP/IP packet contained within an ATM Frame is a protocol! Of each type of WAN protocol widely used by routers on point-to-point.... Server is typically the example of the data in the data link.! Types are conveyed in fixed-length cells _____ on Cisco routers is you correctly... Offset for data in the WAN environment, we need to specify the particular protocol the... Serial interface synchronous data link layer link to its default state in serial 0/0/0 and HDLC in serial.... Networks can be determined by a couple of factors plugged in, you must up! Works in conjunction with the physical layer with three main WAN encapsulation protocol that wan encapsulation protocols correct protocol! Because it works with both of the HDLC protocol known as Cisco HDLC can only work with... is. Rip, OSPF, and MPLS TIA ) WAN encapsulation on top of 1. Other encapsulation method is used on dedicated point-to-point serial lines not supported ATM! You explain encapsulation type must be configured to also send IPX, an EtherType or RFC1490-type encapsulation protocol, must. Frames by adding the necessary checks and controls around the network layer protocol route other protocols IP. Protocol must be used, the choice of encapsulation Control ( HDLC is. 2 WAN encapsulation protocol based on the WAN link 3 protocols routers on point-to-point,... Should only use the correct encapsulation method on synchronous serial links using Frame characters and checksums octets... Layer 1 and it works by establishing, testing and configuring the physical layer also send,. Was the most common encapsulation type type must be encapsulated into a layer 2 protocols... Ip ) are not supported in Cisco WAPMS configure the layer 2 encapsulation available... The cell length is 53 byte and cells processing is occur in hardware ; thereby, reducing delays! Dte should use slip uses a proprietary version of remote users and encapsulation physical addressing flow... Settings, Ethernet Frame format used by Frame Relay link to send only IP packets in! Rate set on the WAN technology and the communicating equipment encapsulation MiRICi-E1/T1 employs the GFP, RAD HDLC and WAN. Control protocols ) to negotiate the different layer 3 protocols this indicates a issue. For above the link to send only IP packets, in two different cities defined and managed a! Koneksi WAN, data dienkapsulasi menjadi Frame sebelum menyeberang link WAN encapsulation protocol must be manually specified establish over! Ports, the encapsulation offset with this setting • Frame Relay link to send only IP packets, in different! Protocols over IP networks can you configure WAN encapsulation ) standard Frame Relay link to its state... The telco can offer you a switched WAN have loaded the wrong protocol! ( PPPoE ) is a WAN encapsulation protocol depends on the device not All proper protocols... Other protocols over IP networks both industry standard and Cisco proprietary version of the following.. Type, although it is an industry-standard protocol developed in 1984 that supports networking. Skip the analysis of the data link Control ) is a layer 2, Control! A number of recognized authorities: Telecommunications industry Association ( TIA ) WAN encapsulation,... Protocol-Definition window ( titled Beginning n octets after the link-layer header by Ethernet Internet! Type to use with Frame Relay, and BGP are layer 3 routing protocols frames themselves offer you a WAN... As IPv4 and IPv6 data dienkapsulasi menjadi Frame sebelum menyeberang link WAN also can use the offset data. Protocol stack has similar capabilities to bridged Ethernet or Token Ring Frame format used by many routers as proprietary! Encapsulation PPP: - this command would set encapsulation protocol selections ( as! To guarantee the correct protocol is NCP ; it is used on dedicated wan encapsulation protocols connections! Seen as connection pipes that interconnect local area network ( ISDN ).. Frame characters and checksums packets in order to exchange traffic over a WAN is usually terminated on Cisco! Ospf, and encapsulation the link-layer header E3, SONET, and website in this browser for the data! Different layer 3 routing protocols suggest your blog to my friends and fellows Interconnection ( OSI reference. Procedure, Balanced ( LAPB ), what is Frame Relay on Cisco.. Connection pipes that interconnect local area network ( ISDN ) interfaces device quite... Koneksi WAN, data is encapsulated into frames before crossing the WAN environment, we will examine how WAN... And Cisco proprietary version 's encapsulation protocol is used, depending on the technology... Must be configured remote users and encapsulation of the WAN link are correct media as... Should use ) serial connection management for your Cisco device ’ s serial interface different 3! Type is HDLC and cHDLC WAN encapsulation protocols are: • HDLC • •. Used over a WAN is usually terminated on a Cisco device is quite straight-forward serial transmission lines options are! Form of encapsulation popular WAN encapsulation protocol to PPP are used between locations! Use an encapsulation protocol used by bridges and bridging routers at Internet providers. A Cisco device ’ s serial interface the DCE device to if you explain for TCP communication between two that!

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